# BOSE EINSTEIN KONDENSAT PDF

Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to near absolute zero (0 K, − °C, or − ° F. Bose-Einstein condensate (plural Bose-Einstein condensates). (physics) A gaseous superfluid phase of matter in which all the particles have the same quantum. In the left plot, no Bose Einstein Condensation took place. One can see that the energy distribution of the atoms is given by the Bose Einstein statistics. In the.

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See Terms of Use for details. Live Science Planet Earth Reference: Compared to more commonly encountered states of matter, Finstein condensates are extremely fragile. The Gross-Pitaevskii equation is a partial differential equation in space and time variables. Pauli was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

The above figure shows the result of such a measurement.

The advantage of this system is that Bose Einstein Condensation can take place even at room temperature. Superfluid helium-4 is a liquid rather than a gas, which means that the interactions between the atoms are relatively strong; the original theory of Bose—Einstein condensation must be heavily modified in order to describe it. Superfluidity and superconductivity are both closely connected with the BEC state of matter. In the indistinguishable case, each value of K is a single state, which has its own separate Boltzmann probability.

Cornell and Carl E.

### Bose–Einstein condensate – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Bose-Einstein condensates were first predicted theoretically by Satyendra Nath Bosean Indian physicist who also discovered the subatomic particle named for him, the boson. The total spin of the atom, arising from this coupling, is an integer lower value. Jin quickly went on to create the eknstein fermionic condensate composed of Cooper pairs.

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## Bose-Einstein condensate

How do we rigorously prove the existence of Bose—Einstein condensates for general interacting systems? Bose—Einstein condensation also applies to quasiparticles in solids.

The bosonic behavior of some of these alkaline gases appears odd at first sight, because their nuclei have half-integer total spin. If the two states are equal in energy, each different configuration is equally likely.

The most obvious property of a BEC is that a large fraction of its particles occupy the same, namely the lowest, energy state. Magnons, electron spin waves, can be controlled by a magnetic field. The experiment also now holds the record for the coldest object we know of in space, though it isn’t yet the coldest thing humanity has ever created.

It says that fermions — the kinds of particles that make up matter — can’t be in identical quantum states. The gas has extremely low density, about one-hundred-thousandth the density of normal air. Ketterle’s condensate had a hundred times more atoms, allowing important results such as the observation of quantum mechanical interference between two different condensates. Bose—Einstein condensates composed of a wide range of isotopes have been produced.

### i. What are the properties of a Bose Einstein Condensate?

In Julyan experiment aboard the International Space Station cooled a cloud of rubidium atoms to ten-millionth of a degree above absolute zero, producing a Bose-Einstein condensate in space.

Seventy years later, its existence was proved. Gravity-based detection of a point-mass moving in a static background”. Contact our editors with your feedback. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we’ll add it to the article.

Under corresponding conditions, below the temperature of phase transition, these phenomena were observed in helium-4 and different classes of superconductors. Research on BECs has expanded the understanding of quantum physics and has led to the discovery of new physical effects. Bose—Einstein condensate BEC is what happens to a dilute gas when it is made very cold, near absolute zeroi.

Satyendra Nath Bose first sent a paper to Einstein on the quantum statistics of light quanta now called photonsin which he derived Planck’s quantum radiation law without any reference to classical physics. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.

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Instead one can observe a high concentration of atoms in the ground state. Bose-Einstein condensates break that rule. One can see that the energy distribution of the atoms is kojdensat by the Bose Einstein statistics.

This will be a negligible fraction of the total number of particles. Instead, the atoms fall into the same quantum states, and can’t be distinguished from one another. Bose—Einstein condensation of quasiparticles.

MagnonsExcitonsand Einsten have integer spin which means they are bosons that can form condensates.