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Environmental Protection Agency EPA to provide information of general interest regarding environmental issues associated with specific industrial sectors. A listing of available Sector Notebooks is included on the following page. The Network allows regulators, the regulated community, technical experts, and the general public to share information regarding: The Network welcomes receipt of environmental messages, information, and data from any public or private person or organization.

Direct technical questions to the “Feedback” button on the bottom of the web page. Complimentary volumes are available to certain groups or subscribers, including public and academic libraries; federal, state, tribal, and local governments; and the media from EPA’s National Service Center for Environmental Publications at When ordering, use the EPA publication number found on the following page. Direct general questions about the Sector Notebook Project to: See the Notebook web page at: Profile of the Transportation Equipment Cleaning Ind.

Additional Information 2 II. General Overview of Agricultural Establishments 3 U. Cattle Ranching andFarming 10 II. Hog and Pig Farming 11 II. Poultry and Egg Production 11 II. Sheep and Goat Farming 13 II. Animal Aquaculture 13 U. Other Animal Production 14 II.

Animal Feeding Operations 15 U. Managing Animal Waste 43 HJ. Utilizing Animal Wastes 53 in.

MRI-derived Bound and Pore Water Concentrations as Predictors of Fracture Resistance

Pest Control 60 IJI. Fuel Use and Fueling 66 IV. Compliance and Enforcement Profile Description V. Agricultural Land Use in the U. Types of Cropland 5 3. Acreage of Agricultural Establishments in the U. Agricultural Establishments by Value of Sales 6 5. Ownership Status of Agricultural Establishments in the U. Average Establishment Size 9 9. Multiplication Factors to Calculate Animal Ciecular 17 Manure Production by Animal Type 44 Summary of the Sector Notebook Project Environmental policies based upon comprehensive analysis of air, water and land pollution such as economic sector, ciruclar community-based approaches are becoming an important supplement to traditional single-media approaches to environmental protection.

The central concepts driving the new policy direction are that pollutant releases to each environmental medium air, water and land affect each other, and that environmental strategies must actively identify and address these interrelationships by designing policies for the “whole” facility.

One way to achieve a whole facility focus is to design dfap policies addressing all media for similar industrial facilities. By doing so, environmental concerns that are common to the manufacturing of similar products can be addressed in a comprehensive manner. Recognition by the EPA Office of Compliance of the need to develop the industrial “sector-based” approach led to the creation of this document.

As other EPA offices, states, the regulated community, environmental groups, and the public became interested in this project, the scope of the original project was expanded. The ability to design comprehensive, common sense environmental protection measures for specific 0202 is dependent on knowledge of several interrelated topics. For the purposes of this project, the key elements chosen for inclusion are: For any given industry, each topic listed above alone could be the subject of a lengthy volume.


However, to produce a manageable document, this project focuses on providing summary information for each topic. This format provides the reader with a synopsis of each issue, and references where more in-depth information is available. Text within each profile was researched from a variety of sources, and was usually condensed dircular more detailed sources pertaining to specific topics.

This approach allows for a wide coverage of activities that can be explored further based upon the references listed at the end of this profile. As a check on the information included, each notebook went through an external document review process. Additional Information Providing Comments OECA’s Office of Compliance plans to periodically review and update notebooks and will make these updates available both in hard copy and electronically.

If you have any comments on the existing notebook, or if you would like to provide additional information, please send a hard copy and computer disk to the EPA Office of Compliance, Sector Notebook Project, M St. Comments can also be sent via the web page.

Adapting Notebooks to Particular Dw The scope of the industry sector described in this notebook approximates the relative national occurrence of facility types within the sector. In many instances, industries within specific geographic regions or states may have unique characteristics that are not fully captured in these profiles. For this reason, the Office of Compliance encourages state and local environmental agencies and other groups to supplement or re-package the circullar included in this 2020 to include more specific industrial and regulatory information that may be available.

Additionally, interested states may xafp to supplement the “Summary of Applicable Federal Statutes and Regulations” section with state and local requirements.

Compliance or technical assistance providers also may want to develop the “Pollution Prevention” section in more detail. Please contact the appropriate specialist listed on the opening page of this notebook if your office is interested in assisting us in the further development of fafp information or policies addressed within this volume.

If you are interested in assisting the development of new notebooks, please contact the Office of Compliance at Data for the notebook, specifically in this chapter, were obtained from the U. All data are the most recent publicly available data for the source cited. It should be noted that the data on the number of livestock establishments presented in the 20002 sections do not represent the number of animal feeding operations AFOs or concentrated animal feeding se CAFOs in the U.

The data simply represent numbers of livestock establishments only. Establishments primarily engaged in livestock production are classified in subgroups up to six digits in length, based on the total value of sales of agricultural products. An establishment would be placed in the group that represents 50 percent or more of its total sales. For example, if 51 percent of the total sales of an establishment are from sales of beef cattle, that establishment would first be classified under NAICS code Cattle Ranching and Farmingthen Beef cattle ranching and farming, including feedlotsand finally under Beef cattle ranching and farming.

General Overview of Agricultural Establishments This section df a general overview of all agricultural establishments to provide the reader with background information regarding the number and circylar of such establishments and production data. Cropland used for cover crops — Includes land used only to grow cover crops for controlling erosion or to be plowed under for improving the soil.

This land, re called “meadow” or “prairie,” may be composed of bunchgrass, shortgrass, buffalo grass, bluestem, bluegrass, switchgrass, desert shrubs, sagebrush, mesquite, greasewood, mountain browse, salt brush, cactus, juniper, and pinion. It also can be predominantly covered with brush or Exhibit 3, Acreage of Agricultural Establishments in the U.


Exhibit 5 presents a breakdown of the ownership status of agricultural establishments in the U. The Ag Census basically identifies the ownership status of agricultural establishments by one of three categories: Ownership Status of Agricultural which full owners. Establishments primarily engaged in raising hogs and pigs. D establishments may include farming activities, such as breeding, farrowing, and the raising of weaning pigs, feeder pigs, or market size hogs.

Establishments primarily engaged in breeding, hatching, and raising poultry for meat or egg production. Establishments primarily engaged in raising sheep, lambs, and goats, adfp feeding lambs for fattening. Establishments primarily engaged in the farm raising of finfish, shellfish, or any other kind of animal aquaculture.

These establishments use some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as holding in captivity, regular stocking, feeding, and protecting from predators.

Establishments primarily engaged in raising animals and insects for sale or product production except those listed aboveincluding bees, horses and other equines, rabbits and other fur-bearing animals and associated products e. Also includes those establishments for which no one animal or animal family cirxular one-half of production. Of the 1, livestock producing establishments, approximately 78 percent were classified as cattle ranching and farming.

All livestock producing establishments combined covered nearly million acres of land. Based on the number of establishments and total acreage for each NAICS code, Exhibit 8 presents the average size of each type of establishment.

Exhibit 9 presents the distribution of total sales among the six types of establishments compared to the total number of establishments. Inthis category included 36, establishments, or approximately 4 percent of all livestock producing establishments in the U. Poultry and egg production is divided into 5 subclassifications: Each of these xafp averages approximately acres in size.

Profile of the Agricultural Livestock Production Industry

Exhibit 12 presents the total sales of each of the subclassifications of the poultry and egg production industry. The use of contracts has been noted to affect the organizational structure of the poultry industry raising questions about ownership responsibility as well as environmental concerns.

This is particularly true when animals are produced under contracts where the contractor processor or integrator dictates the terms of the contract and controls the amount produced and the production practices used, but the contractee grower retains responsibility for increased animal waste management and disease control often without adequate compensation to meet these additional costs.

In a study, USD A showed that almost 90 percent of the value of all poultry production is produced under contract, which has played a key role in the influence of integrators on the poultry sector. Of the 29, sheep and goat establishments, 21, approximately 70 percent are sheep daf; the remaining 8, are goat farms. The average sheep farm is approximately dafpp in size. Goat farms average approximately acres. Animal Aquaculture Animal aquaculture NAICS code is the smallest of the livestock producing establishments in terms of number of establishments, with only 3, active establishments in This accounted for fewer than 1 percent of all livestock producing establishments in the U.

NAICS subdivides animal aquaculture establishments as follows: These operations are located primarily in four states-Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi.

Other Animal Production Production of other animals NAICS code occurred atestablishments inwhich is approximately 11 percent of all livestock producing establishments in the U. These establishments produce a variety of other animals including: Exhibit 13 provides a breakdown of the 4 subclassifications daf; percent of establishments, as well as by percent of sales.