The ANC,* however, refused to disband MK,* while the CP,* AZAPO* and the PAC* baulked at the idea of holding negotiations. Notwithstanding this, CODESA 1. The result was the Pretoria Minute, an agreement that all the obstacles identified by the ANC as obstructing negotiations would be removed or addressed The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) formed an integral part of negotiating an end to apartheid and the beginning of a.

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But the offer was contingent on the ANC agreeing to there being a Senate representing minorities, whose membership would be appointed by CODESA, that would also have to pass the constitution by a two thirds majority.

For all intents and purposes the interim constitution would become the final constitution.

Convention For A Democratic South Africa (CODESA) – The O’Malley Archives

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. To search the O’Malley archive please click here. Contact the Freedom of Information Programme for assistance. It was Joe Slovoleader of the South African Communist Partywho in proposed the breakthrough “sunset clause” for a negotiationx government for the five years following a democratic election, including guarantees and concessions to all sides. Indeed, De Klerk was confident enough of the outcome to promise that if he lost, he would dissolve the NOP government and force an election.

Apartheid was a system of racial discrimination and segregation in South African government. These talks continued untilone year before the country’s first democratic elections where all South Africans had a right to cast votes for a codsea of their choice to run the republic.

The Boipatong Massacre in June collapsed the process. Preparations for rallies were incompetent; they were poorly advertised. This makes the process more intricate, progress slow and incremental. According to Thabo Mbeki, within minutes of sitting down ‘everyone understood that there was nobody there with horns.

The O’Malley Archives

Black lives were cheap and counted for nothing. They simply could not cross that hurdle. Do you want to close this quote here? Obviously, the ANC would be looking for the lowest threshold it could bargain for, the NP for the highest. Negotiayions African general election, South Africa votes for change”.

The negotiations were dramatically interrupted in June when the right-wing Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging stormed the World Trade Centre in Kempton Park, breaking through the glass front of the building with an armoured car and briefly taking over the negotiations chamber. Its deliberations continued until May when the failure of the ANC and the NP to agree on the weighted majority that would be required in an elected constituent assembly to ratify a new constitution brought negotiations to an abrupt halt.


This agreement led to a further series of indabas to iron out remaining details in earlyand the resumption of negotiations at Kempton Park in April CODESA This put considerable pressure on the other parties to agree with the consensus or be left behind. Outright hatred lends itself to an antidote; lingering dislike does not. As the secret talks bore fruit and the political engagement started to take place, the National Intelligence Service withdrew from centre stage in the process, and moved to a new phase of operational support work.

Retrieved from ” https: Whites despised or feared blacks, and blacks hated the white-imposed system that oppressed them and feared the white-man’s power over their lives. Indeed, if you gave in to the impulse that a gesture to accommodate did not have a hidden agenda, you had already lost. This page was last edited on 16 Decemberat De Klerk was the state president at the time and a leader of the National Party which engineered apartheid. Malan Airport in Cape Town on 12 February ,effectively removed most obstacles, especially with regard to the meaning “of the suspension of the armed struggle,” that stood in the way of a multi-party conference.

This provided Mandela with more comfortable lodgings, but also gave easier access in a way that could not be compromised. In Junethe Boipatong massacre took place, with 45 residents of Boipatong killed by mainly-Zulu hostel dwellers. He wondered whether the government had actually lost control of the defense forces or whether the violence was a deliberate ploy on the part of the government to destabilize the ANC, undermine its support base, and prevent it from organizing ANC branches on a countrywide scale.

If the government does not carry out its duties [it said] we will have to find ways and means to defend our people against these criminal attacks. It was signed by representatives of twenty-seven political organisations and national and homeland governments, and prepared the way for the CODESA negotiations. Few had had any training in the use of weapons, and many were as intent on using their arms to enrich themselves at the expense of the communities they were supposed to protect as they were in protecting the communities from violent onslaughts.

Thereafter there was a perceptible change in attitude. The violence was aimless, yet obviously carefully orchestrated to instill much fear. This Pretoria Minute included the suspension of the armed struggle by the ANC and its military wing Umkhonto we Sizwe as well as bring the state of emergency to an end. The Conservative Party demanded an immediate election. If the objective was to drive a wedge between the ANC and the government, they were even more successful. The mandate that I had received from the white electorate was visibly slipping away from me and the National Party.


The offer, of course, was rejected by the government, which foresaw a situation coddsa the ANC would sit idly by for six months, have their referendum, and get a constitution of their own choosing. As the National Party cracked down on black opposition to apartheid, most leaders negotiarions ANC and other opposition organisations were either killed, imprisoned or went into exile. A period of brinkmanship followed, with the IFP remaining out of the negotiations until within days of the election on 27 April If, after six months, the constituent assembly failed to agree on a constitution, a referendum would be held at which point the votes of a simple majority of the electorate would suffice to pass the new constitution.

This dealt with a constitutional assembly, an interim government, political prisoners, hostels, dangerous weapons and mass action and negotiatione the negotiation process after the failure of CODESA.

Indeed, the working group dealing with constitutional principles agreed to discuss the principle of self-determination negoiations its application in the South African context in the hope that it would alleviate the concerns of the CP and others further to the right and provide the space they needed to convince their constituency that there might be merit in joining the negotiations, if only to act as a watch guard for their interests.

Barnard therefore brokered an initial agreement in principle about what became known as “talks about talks”.

During the negotiations, De Klerk’s government pushed for a two-phase transition with an appointed transitional government with a rotating presidency. Subscribe for latest news and information from SAHA. Indeed, in one sense, the final meeting of WG2 to try and resolve its differences was a charade.

It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.

Following the Record of Understanding, the two main negotiating parties, the ANC and the NP, agreed to reach bilateral consensus on issues before taking them to the other parties in the forum.