FORNOVO 1495 PDF

The battle of Fornovo (6 July ) was an unsuccessful attempt by an Italian army to stop Charles VIII of France during his retreat from Naples. Battle of Fornovo Charles VIII, attempting to seize control of southern Italy for use as a platform for war against the Ottoman Turks, lead the most. Nicolle, David. Fornovo France’s Bloody Fighting Retreat. Oxford: Osprey, Santosuosso, Antonio. “Anatomy of Defeat: The Battle of Fornovo in

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In that battle countless baggage piles of the French, abounding in all riches, were lost; in them was found a great weight of silver and gold.

Alessandro Beneditti, The Battle of Fornovo () » De Re Militari

But when mass had been said the French Kingdecided on the advice of all his nobles to keep to the left in the direction of Medesano, a very well-protected place. The second, the largest, was led by Charles himself.

Indeed fortune heaped the hazards of an entire year upon this day, and as the soldiers continued their looting, on every side the ground was strewn with bundles of cheaper wares which the avarice of the first soldiers had scornfully abandoned to servants, camp-followers, and peasants in favor of better booty.

The initial French advance went well.

In these he put his entire hope of safety and resolved not to await hunger longer, gornovo to undergo the risk of battle. Charles was able to advance most of the way up the Italian peninsula without any problem, but the danger came when he had to cross the Apennine Mountains to get back into the Po Valley. These tactics were to be put to shame when the highly motivated armies of France and Spain descended upon the Italian peninsula.

Both sides took to camp. Their fleet was captured at Rapallo, and the loot taken from Naples was lost, while the Duke of Orleans was forced to surrender at Novara before a relief army could arrive. The leaders, fearing the risk, delayed and prolonged the battle.

Fornovo 1495

Accordingly after the letter had been read, and especially because it gave no particulars, the Venetian Senate and the whole city thought that their fortunes had worsened and that the enterprise was in the greatest peril. Both parties strove to present themselves as the victors in the battle.

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On 4 July the French reached the village of Fornovo and found their passage blocked by the main League army camped just north of the village. This kingdom was not acquired for me, but for all of you; I enjoy a very extensive kingdom in a long succession.

The French then advanced quickly down the valley, with 3, of the Swiss and a large part of the French force in the advance guard on the assumption that this part of the army would see the hardest fighting.

flrnovo Archived copy as title Articles lacking in-text citations from July All articles lacking in-text forrnovo Commons category link is on Wikidata Use dmy dates from March The French, less encumbered and more lightly armed, hastened down the hill in a dense mass to help. The river Taro carried very many corpses to the Po; the rest, more than twenty-five hundred, unburied and swollen by the heat of the sun and the rain, were left to wild beasts.

A certain Carlo by the name of Ingrato kept shouting out that they were all being led to slaughter and that the commander was at fault. He was welcomed with rejoicing by the citizens, as the French had made themselves hated through their behaviour. In short, all the plunder on the following day was wickedly divided among the Greek allies, booty which was worth two hundred thousand ducats. Meanwhile the King drew up three enormous battle groups.

Medici-ruled Florence fell quickly, and the French helped with the restoration of Republican government.

Ironically, on the same day as the battle was fought, Ferdinand II appeared fonrovo Naples with a Spanish fleet; he re-entered and occupied Naples the following day.

It was the first major battle of the Italian Wars.

Battle of Fornovo, 1495

foornovo Then, when the assembly had been adjourned and the soldiers were caring fprnovo their bodies, scouts announced the arrival of the enemy, asserting that three companies fornovl them were not far distant. None of the enemy risked fighting in single combat, but in greater numbers attacked single individuals and straightway returned to the standards. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wherever the danger is greater, I shall leave the duty of commanding to my uncle here and will myself with javelin and sword and a chosen band cut a path among the enemy; neither the magnitude of the enterprise nor the utmost desperation of the French disturbs my spirit.

The Venetian proveditors awaited the outcome of the affair near the last ranks, so that if there was any need they might perform the duty of the general.

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These lay in a noble death before my eyes, and there was no blood, for the rain had bathed their gaping wounds. They were uncertain of victory partly because the soldiers had returned to their tents to divide the spoils, partly because the crowd which was unaccustomed to arms had turned to flight, and also because of the great confusion in camp. He came under escort to the commander Francesco Gonzaga and the proveditors to request of them a truce of three days.

The French had lost the booty of the Italian expedition.

Battle of Fornovo, – The Art of Battle

Among the French likewise the servants and camp-followers who were killed increased the number of the slain. Meanwhile the Latins and the French together were searching here and there, each one for those whom he knew, and were observing the customary truce for burial.

The French King was distinguished from the others neither by his helmet nor by his arms, and much less in the height of his horse, lest he give incentive to the enemy to attack; instead he was hiding away as a humble soldier in the line, and he had removed his royal insignia, so that they would not betray him in battle. This battle would mark the beginning of gunpowder weaponry and the start of the bloody Italian wars. Count Antonio of Urbino also was told to follow at a like distance.

The first line consisted of six hundred lightly armed Greek soldiers commanded by Pietro Duodo, who had been ordered to seize the highest point of the mountain from the rear, provoke the enemy, and throw them into disorder. Renaissance Society of America, The commander Francesco Gonzaga, acting more as soldier than general, pierced the chest of an enemy with a deadly javelin in the first charge, disturbed the ranks, and then fighting keenly with his sword penetrated with much slaughter inside the lines and returned to his men to replace his horse which had been hit.