Georgius Gemistos (also Plethon or Pletho; in Greek: Γεώργιος Πλήθων Γεμιστός) (c. – ), a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, was one. ABSTRACT: In this paper I examine George Gemistos Plethon’s defense in his De Differentiis of Plato’s conception of God as superior to that of Aristotle’s. Born in Constantinople about , died in the Peloponnesus, Out of veneration for Plato he changed his name from Gemistos to Plethon. Although he .

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His attack on Aristotelianism was to some extent effective, although opposed to him were men of equal ability and power, such as GennadiosPatriarch of Constantinople. The oldest Latin translation is that of Nicolas Tridentinus Scutellius, but it remains unpublished.

Methuen, This work was the first shot to be fired in an academic battle that continued in Byzantium plethno George Scholarios’s Defence of Aristotle 6 and Plethon’s subsequent Reply. As Plethon claims, ” Many of his other works still exist in manuscript form pethon various European libraries.

The comparison of Plato and Aristotle was also printed at Basle, As a youth he studied in Constantinople and at the Ottoman Muslim court in nearby Adrianople. Plato’s view is that God, the supreme sovereign, is the creator of every kind of intelligible and separate substance, and hence of our entire universe. Man, as relative of the gods, should strive towards good. Plethon describes the creation of the universe as being perfect and outside of time, so that the universe remains eternal, without beginning or end.

Theodora, reluctant to destroy the only copy of a work by such a distinguished scholar, turned it over to Gennadios. Paideia logo design by Janet L. He is the master in the universe. In the text of De Differentiis itself, it is not clearly evident that Plethon considers the Platonic conception of God closer to that of the Christian conception than that of Aristotle.

Marsilio Ficinothe Florentine humanist and the first director of the Accademia Platonica, paid Plethon the ultimate honour, calling him ‘the second Plato’, while Cardinal Bessarion speculated as to whether Plato’s soul occupied his body. He believed that the universe was eternal, but that it had been created at some point beyond time. An even older edition of Plethon’s text was published by Bernardus Donatus Venice, Since Donatus and Chariander relied on different manuscripts, the Latin translation in Migne does not parallel the Greek text.


Plethon also introduced the geography of Strabo to the West, initiating the overthrow of Ptolemy’s erroneous geographical theories.

On Bessarion’s death, he willed his personal library to the library of San Marco in Venice. Heterodoxy in Defence of Orthodoxy. Plato’s RepublicAncient Greek religionZoroastrianism. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

Gemistos Plethon – New World Encyclopedia

He recommended religious rites and hymns to petition the classical gods, such as Zeus gemistso, whom he saw as universal principles and planetary powers. This pletuon, titled Gemiwtos of the Doctrines of Zoroaster and Platoaffirms the existence of a pantheon of gods, with Zeus as supreme sovereign, containing within himself all being in an undivided state; his eldest child, motherless, is Poseidonwho created the heavens and rules all below, ordaining order in the universe.

Plethon continues his gemistps by noting ” That, even though we have a share in mortal things, one thing in us is from the immortals and this is our form.

The purpose of this council was to effect the union of the two churches and thus, hopefully, to preserve the Byzantine Empire with the help of the West. This universe was begotten by Zeus; it was neither begun in time nor will it come to an end. Heterodoxy in Defense gemisgos Orthodoxy 1 Darien C. Ina local Peloponnesian governor by the name of Manuel Raoul Oises arrested Juvenal for heresy. Here, it was believed until recently, [7] Plethon met and influenced Cosimo de’ Medici to found a new Platonic Academywhich, under Marsilio Ficinowould proceed to translate into Latin all Plato’s works, the Enneads of Plotinusand various other Neoplatonist works.


Since it is short, I present it here for the first time in English translation. History of “Gemistos Plethon” Note: I have inserted the bracketed numbers to identify the twelve points referred to by Plethon. Grube, Plato’s Thought Indianapolis: Much of his writing exhibited a passionate regard for Greece. It came into the possession of Princess Theodora, wife of Demetriosggemistos of Morea. The Reply may also gemixtos found in PG, He cites as his evidence for this Metaphysics a Like many academic battles, it eventually wore itself out.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. According to Marsilio Ficino, in his introduction to the translation of Plotinus [16]Cosimo de’ Medici attended these lectures and was inspired to found the Accademia Platonica in Florence, where Italian students of Plethon continued to teach after the conclusion of the council.

Western European scholars temistos limited access to ancient Greek philosophy through the Roman Catholic Church and the commentaries of Islamic and Jewish scholars, but the Byzantine libraries held many documents and interpretations that the Westerners had never seen before. In his remains were carried to Rimini and placed in the church of St.

In Constantinople, he had been a senator, and pleghon continued to fulfil various public functions, such as being a judge, and was regularly consulted by rulers of Morea.

As a secular scholar, Plethon was often not needed at the council. It contains a wealth of biographical and bibliographical information and is an indispensible starting point for anyone wishing to do work on Plethon.

Georgius Gemistus Plethon

Plethon next turns to Aristotle’s metaphysical astronomy. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats. He vaguely prescribed three religious principles: Aristotle, on the other hand, never calls God the creator of anything whatever, but only the motive force of the universe.