Isagoge: history of logic: Transmission of Greek logic to the Latin West: and of Porphyry of Tyre’s Isagoge (“Introduction,” on Aristotle’s Categories), although. The Isagoge or “Introduction” to Aristotle’s Categories (text) was a the standard textbook on logic for more than a thousand years after his death. The Isagoge or Introduction by Porphyry is a commentary on Aristotle’s Categories, which became a key logical text of the Middle Ages, being.

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As regards his views on the soul, Porphyry seems in all essentials to follow Plotinus.

Midpoint Trade Books Inc. Write a customer review. A preserved title of a lost works of his, On the differences between Plato and Aristotlemay seem to give contrary indications he is also supposed to have written a work about the unity of their thought.

The codex is very carefully written, with few instances of homoeoteleuton. The idagoge are a classification of the possible relations in which a predicate may stand to its subject, based on the original classification given by Aristotle in the Topics iv. These texts served as a basic introductory texts in philosophy for at least years.


The civic virtues are concerned with the virtuous actions of ordinary life—wise, temperate, just and courageous. Boethius ‘ translation of the work, in Latin, became a oprphyry medieval textbook in European schools and universities, setting the stage for medieval philosophical-theological developments of logic and the problem of universals.

However, in the commentary the distinction between the first and the second hypostasis is somewhat blurred: The relationship between these levels is in general described in terms of a doctrine of double activity: So, as should be clear from what already has been said, Porphyrian scholarship, when soberly done, is filled with caveats: It is a characteristic of post-Iamblichean Neoplatonism AD onwards that religion, religious rites and even magic theurgy were taken to be an alternative way to isatoge soul’s salvation, beside philosophy.


Below is a list of some translations of Porphyry’s works, mostly into English, followed by a list of some secondary literature, mostly in English.

Nevertheless, such is not the case, but always those successive being enumerated, and two being deficient by one difference, from having been already assumed, and the three by two differences, the four by three, the five by four; all the differences are ten, namely, four, three, two, one. Porphyry, Introduction or Isagoge to the logical Categories of Aristotle. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. Again, after another manner also, the principle of the generation of every one is called genus, whether from the generator or from the place in which a person is generated, for thus we say that Orestes had his genus from Tantalus, Hyllus from Hercules, and again, that Pindar was by genus a Theban, but Plato an Athenian, for country is a certain principle of each man’s generation, in the same manner as a father.

Universally then every difference acceding to a thing renders it isagogee, but differences common and proper render it different in quality, and the most proper isaagoge it another thing.

Authors/Porphyry/isagoge – The Logic Museum

What we have and know to be his, however, does not indicate drastic theoretical innovations, except perhaps in the sphere of the philosophy of logic and language. The extant commentary on the Categories mentions only a dual relation, that between words and things, whereas other sources attribute to Porphyry a triadic relation between words, concepts and things.

On the other hand, the most specific they place in a certain number, yet not in an infinite one, but individuals which are after the most specific are infinite; wherefore, when we have come down to the most specific from the most generic, Porpnyry exhorts us to rest, 12 but to porpyry through those iagoge which are in pprphyry middle, dividing by specific differences; he tells us however to leave infinites alone, as there cannot be science of these.


Porphyry was in Sicily recovering from the suicidal depression into which he fell while living with Plotinus in Rome. Its authority grew down the centuries, and it was still in use in textbooks in the Orient at the end of the 19th century.

He may have been Iamblichus’ teacher. The work includes the highly influential hierarchical classification of genera and species from substance issgoge general down to individuals, known as the Tree of Porphyryand an introduction which mentions the problem of universals.

Corrections in the scribe’s hand and jsagoge a second hand in the margins and above the line. Porphyry, by contrast, insists on the unity of the human soul: For of predicates some are predicated of one thing alone, as individuals, for instance, “Socrates,” and “this man,” and “this thing;” but others are predicated of many, as genera, species, differences, properties, and iisagoge, predicated in common, but not peculiarly to any one.

Isagoeg then, to the differences which produce another thing do the divisions of genera into species arise, and the definitions arising from genus and such differences are assigned. It is common then to property and inseparable accident not to subsist without those things in which they are beheld, for as man does not subsist without risible, 25 so neither can Ethiopian subsist without blackness, and as property is present to every, and always, so also is inseparable accident.

Customers who viewed this item also viewed. There are many Arabic commentaries on the work, listed by Wenrich. Oxford University Press, Seems to be a copy of V, since marginal corrections in V appear on the line in the text.