Preface to the First German Edition (Marx, ). Karl Marx. London. July 25, 1 This is the more necessary, as even the section of Ferdinand. (Karl Marx, «Misère de la Philosophie. Réponse à la Philosophie de la Misère de M. Proudhon», , p. ) P. , Nota 42 «I metalli naturalmente moneta. Karl Marx Capitalul Critica Economiei Politice Cartea i Vol i Procesul de Productie a Capitalului. Uploaded by . t I D Z A r K 0 i 4 1?,. 1 0 1 4 -.
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In answer to Mr. Daire, Parisp. Bailey,] “Money and its Vicissitudes”, Lond.
Ricardo and his followers. By the Author of Essays on the Formation etc. It is certain too, that all those things only represent the labour which has created them, and if they have a value, or even two distinct values, they can only derive them from that the value of the labour from which they emanate. Ricardo, “The principles of Pol.
Il n’y a pour eux que deux sortes d’institutions, celles de l’art et celles de la nature. Bullion than may be reckoned to he of higher value, where the smaller weight will purchase the marrx quantity capitall the product or manufacture of the country etc.
By a Merchant”, Lond. To the Lord Marquis of Halifax. Partie, Parisp. What do these people want, who cry out for money? Then it seems money is not his want, but a Price for his corn and cattle, which he would sell, but cannot Or, 3 The consumption fails, as when men, by reason of poverty, do not spend so much in their houses as formerly they did, wherefore it is not the increas of specifick money, which would at all advance the farmer’s goods, but the removal of any of these three causes, which do truly keep down the market The merchant and shopkeeper want money in the same manner, that is, they want a vent for the goods they deal in, by reason that the markets fail Just as there is a certain proportion of farthings necessary in a small retail Trade, to change silver money, and to even such reckonings as cannot be adjusted with the smallest silver pieces Now as the proportion of the number of farthings requisite in commerce is to be taken from the number of people, the frequency of their exchanges, as also, and principally, from the value of the smallest silver pieces of money; so in like manner, capitalkl proportion of money gold and silver specie requisite to our trade, is to be likewise taken from the frequency of commutations, and from the bigness of payments.
The value of goods annually bought and sold in any country requires a certain quantity of money to circulate and distribute them to their proper consumers, and can give maarx to no more. The channel of circulation necessarily draws to itself a sum sufficient to fill it, and never admits any more, [A. Smith] “Wealth of Nations”, [vol. Locke,] “Some Considerations etc. Upon the arrival of quantities from Spain Not long after there will come a demand for bullion, to be exported again.
If there is none, but all happens to be in coin, what then? Melt it down again; there’s no loss in it, for the coining costs the owner nothing. Thus the nation has been abused, and made to pay for the twisting of straw, for asses to eat. But if there is as much silver as will transact the small payments independent of gold, the retail dealer must then receive silver for small purchases; and it must of necessity accumulate in his hands.
Value of this description may be made to answer all the purposes of intrinsic value and supersede even the necessity for a standard, provided only the quantity of [ It is the denomination and currency of the money that man regard in bargaining, and not the quantity of silver What this, you gods!
Why this Will lug your priests and servants from cpaitalul sides; Pluck stout men’, pillows from below their heads. This yellow slave Will knit and break religions; bless the accours’d; Make the hoar leprosy ador’d; place thieves And give them title, knee and approbation With senators of the bench; this is it, That makes the wappen’d kagl wed again Come damned earth, Thou common whore of mankind,” Shakespeare, “Timon of Athens”.
This ebbing and flowing of money, supplies and accommodates itself, without any aid of Politicians The buckets work alternately; when money is scarce, bullion is coined, when bullion is scarce, capitalu, is melted. Mills Evidenoe [in] “Repts.
CAPITALUL, vol 1 by Karl MARX – – from Bookhouse and
Roy,] “The Theory of cpaitalul Exchanges. The Bank Charter Marz of “, Lond. Capiralul as it would seem, to suppose that any trick of the kind would ha adopted, the report has been so universal that it really deserves mention. The bills granted or credits opened, to-day, need have no resemblance whatever, either in quantity, ,arx or duration, to those granted or entered upon to-morrow or next day, nay, many of to-day’s bills and credits, when due, fall in with a mass of liabilities whose origins traverse a range of antecedent dates altogether indefinite, bills at 12, 6, 3 months or I often aggregating together to swell the common liabilities of one particular day By a Banker in England”, Edinburghp.
Defoe,] “An Essay upon Publick Credit”, 3. The exportation of the coin is caused maxr its cheapness, and is not the effect, but the cause of an unfavourable balance. We may malt down the heaviest and turn it into the splendour of plate, vessels or utensils of gold and silver; or send it out as a commodity, where the same is wanted or desired; or let it out capitaljl interest, where interest is high. Petty, “Political Anatomy of Ireland”, p. Si l’on gagnait long-temps en tout avec tous, il faudrait rendre de bon accord les plus grandes parties du profit, pour recommencer le jeu.
Who are the consumers? Malthus recommend him to pay some other person to take off his goods? Wayland, “The Elements of Pol. Opdyke, “A Treatise on polit. Economy”, New Yorkp. Had it not existed before, neither could it after that transaction. Molesworth, Londonv. The cash is given in the shop”. Report”, Lond,p.
And I am assured that, in the careless and clumsy way they must be used by the slaves, anything lighter or less rude could not be furnished them with good economy, and that such tools as we constantly give our labourers, and find our profit in giving them, would not last out a day in a Larl cornfield – much lighter and more free from stones though it be than ours.
So, too, when I ask why mules are so universally substituted for horses on the farm, the first reason given, and confessedly the moat conclusive one, is that horses cannot bear the treatment that they always must get from the negroes; horses are always soon foundered or crippled by them, while mules will bear cudgelling, or lose a meal or two now and then, and not be materially injured, and they do not take cold or get sick, if neglected or overworked; But I do not need to go further than to the window of the room in which I am writing, to see at almost any time, treatment of cattle that would insure the immediate discharge of the driver by almost any farmer owning them in the North.
Cazenove,] “Outlines of Polit. Economy”, Londonp. Ricardo speaks of the portion of the labour of the engineer in making stocking machines The other two — the working stock of the cattle, and the Capitalkl in the Month of November “, edit. In these instances there is no consumption of value. They are consumed from time to time, and their value re-appears, in that new vigour imparted to his body and mind, forming fresh capital, to be employed again in capitslul work of production.
Hopkins, “On Rent of Land etc. This practice has been often noticed in Reports presented to Captalul, as being attended with great and notorious evilP.
These females, employed with the men, hardly distinguished from them capifalul their dress, and begrimed with dirt and smoke, are exposed to the deterioration of character arising from the loss of self-respect which can hardly fail to follow from their unfeminine occupation. Third Report”, ,]p. Fourth Report”, ,] 64, p. And be it enacted, that hereafter no minor engaged in any factory shall be holden or required to work more than 10 hours in any day, capigalul 60 hours in any week; and that thereafter no msrx shall be admitted as a worker mard the age of 10 years in capitslul factory within this state.
Legea din 18 martie There were two conditions to which an employment must be subject to cause it to be inspected, viz, the use of steam or mrx power, and the manufacture of certain specified fibres. The worker knows now when that which he sells is ended, and when his own begins, and by possessing a sure foreknowledge of this, is enabled to pre-arrange his own minutes for his own purposes.
Capital has its boundary of increase. The boundary may, at any given period, be attained in the actual extent of economic time employed. His employment should be, a general attention to the whole: William Petty, “Political Anatomy of Ireland”,p. If he can sell his goods at a higher price, while his workmen’s wages remain unaltered, he is clearly benefited A smaller proportion of what he produces is sufficient to put that labour into motion, and a larger proportion consequently remains for himself.
So that every art, trade, or engine, doing work with labour of fewer hands, and consequently cheaper, begets in others a kind of necessity and emulation, either of using the same art, trade, or engine, or of inventing something like it, that every man may be upon the square, that no man may be larl to undersell his neighbour. This will always be diminished when the necessaries of life grow cheaper.
Machinery, it is true, cheapens the necessaries of life, but it also cheapens iarl labourer too. On promoting that power their attention is fixed and almost exclusively fixed.
But I am quite sure, from my best observation, that any given five men will, in their total, afford a proportion of labour equal to any other five within the period of life I have stated; that is, that among such five men there will be one possessing all the qualifications of a good workman, one bad, and the other three middling, and approximating to czpitalul first and the last.
So that in so small a platoon as that of even five, you will find the full complement of all that five men can earn.
Karl Marx (): Capitalul, vol. 1 – Citate în limbi străine
For instance the lifting of a large tree on a wain Arbuthnot,] “An Enquiry into the Connection magx the present amrx of provisions and the size of farms. Arbuthnot,] “An Inquiry into the Connection between the present price etc,”, p 7. The consequence of this is that large quantities of the crop are left unpicked, while another portion is gathered from the ground, when it has fallen, and is of course discoloured and partially rotted, so that for want of labour at the proper season the cultivator is actually forced to submit to the loss of a large part of that crop for which England is so anxiously looking.
Carli, Note la P.
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Superintendence is here acpitalul dispensed with. And whether it had been otherwise possible for England, to have carried on her Woollen Manufacture to so great a perfection? Industrielles, Recueilli par A. Blaise, Paris —, p. By carrying on all the different processes at once, which an individual must have executed separately, it becomes possible to produce a multitude of pins for instance completely finished in the same time as a single pin might have been either cut or pointed.
Fourth Report”,p. In those great manufactures! Smith, “Wealth of Nations”, capitalup.